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The flashing headlight belies its electrical simplicity - ie, not very effectively filtered on the DC side. Converting transformer AC output to DC with rectifiers creates a spiky DC, its frequency dependent on the arrangement of rectifiers. That's one of the reasons power supplies have those big fat capacitors in them. Incandescent lamps are very sensitive to voltage variation, so the as the DC flickers some, the lamps will flash in sync. The motor doesn't care due to something called hysteresis. The sound board has its own on board power conditioning, so it doesn't care either. The Control Master 20 is a more sophisticated (electrically) product than the Power G. The G uses raw resistance to vary the voltage, whereas the CM20 uses pulse control. I looked at both originally, and chose the TE instead with a fixed supply.

Some locomotives have on board power conditioning for their lights. If the LGB uses 14-18v incandescent bulbs, you'll see the flicker.
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